Sajt posvećen učenju engleskog jezika

Difference between make and do

Students often make mistakes when trying to use make or do. Unfortunately there is no hard rule in English concerning the use of make or do. The verb  make goes with some words and the verb do with other words.

DO is used :

for indefinite activities : do something / nothing / anything / everything

for work : do work/ the shopping/ the garden/ a job/ business/ homework/ the windows/ laundry/ the dishes/ the housework/ exercise/ chores/ a translation/ a test

– in the informal structure do ……….. ing  when talking about activities that take a certain time or are repeated jobs or hobbies. There is usually a determiner: the, some, my, much…

Example: I’m going to do some walking.

He wants to do some bird-watching.

in common fixed expressions: do harm/ good/ one’s best/ a favour / sport / exercise / one’s hair/ one’s teeth/ 100mph /

MAKE is used for some creative activities. These activities usually create something you can  touch and involves something you choose to do.

You make: breakfast/ lunch/ dinner/ a cup of tea/ your bed/ a mess/ friends/ love / a journey/ a decision/ a promise/ an effort/ a suggestion/ an appointment/ an arrangement/ a complaint/  an excuse/ a complaint/ a mistake/ a speech/ a statement/ room for something/ money/ a fortune/ a profit/ a loss/ a telephone call/ a choice/ a reservation/

However, sometimes the context needs to dictate the choice between “do” or “ make”. Here’s the example:

He’s doing the crossword puzzle.

But the person who created that crossword puzzle probably makes crossword puzzles for living and earns money for  that.

Teachers make homework and exams and students do homework and take exams.

In the end, here’s a piece of advice to you. Make your own list of “do” and “ make” expressions. Use “make” where you could use “create” and “do” elsewhere.

Here are a few quizes if you want to check your knowledge:

http://www.learn-english-today.com/lessons/lesson_contents/make-do_ex.htm

http://perso.wanadoo.es/autoenglish/gr.make.p.htm

 

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Bruno, the dog

He came into our life all of a sudden, a small white ball in a shoe box. Actually, he was a birthday present for my daughter. My daughter was happy when she saw him. My husband even happier. I was the one who said: „No! I don’ t want him in the house. Get him out of the house.“ I tried not to look at that small  white lovely creature because I knew that I’d start loving him. So that evening he left our home. Everybody was angry with me.

Two days later I came back from work. I was very tired. My daughter opened the door. There was a smile on her face. She said: “ This time he’ll stay with us. Don’t worry, I’ll take a good care of him and Dad will help me. You are only expected to say „yes“ and love him.“ While she was talking the white puppy was looking at me as if  he wanted to say : “ Look at me! Look at my eyes! In my heart there is space for all of you.“ From that moment he became part of our life and still is. My daughter called him Bruno. Now  our golden retriever is two years old and has become a nice dog. We talk to him and he understands us. He knows what we think and feel.  He knows a lot of things. He’s got his favourite toys he plays with after a good meal. When he wants to draw our attention he goes to other room and brings socks or a slipper in his mouth and puts it in front of us, proud of himself.  He likes people, especially children. He’s the happiest when we all go for a walk together. He enjoys a car drive.

Now I can’t imagine my life without him.

Have you got a dog? How did you get  your dog? Has he changed your life? In what way?

A campaign against smoking

Do you know  that smoking dates  back to as early as 5000 BC. It has been recorded in many different cultures. Smoking tobacco quickly spread to the rest of the world after the first European explorers had reached and conquested the American continent.

Tobacco smoking is by far the most popular form of smoking.More than one billion people on our planet practise smoking. It is a hard habit to break. Tobacco contains nicotine which is highly addictive. Your body or mind quickly gets used to nicotine that a person needs to have it in order to feel normal. Some people even smoke opium or cannabis. Statistics say that nine in ten tobacco users start smoking before the age of 18. But smoking kills one half of long term smokers.It kills non-smokers, too. Some reports say that about  five million people worldwide die each year as a result of smoking.

Relatively recently in most Western countries has smoking come to be viewed in a negative light. Most medical studies have proven that tobacco is the leading cause of many diseases such as heart diseases, lung cancer. …It can even  cause birth defects. In their attempt to stop tobacco smoking many countries have imposed high taxis on tobacco products as well as well as anti-smoking campaigns. Smoking is restricted and banned in all public places. Cigarette campaigns are not allowed to advertise on TV, radio, magazines and newspapers.

  • Once you start, it’s hard to stop
  • The one who smokes is not my friend
  • Health and smoking don’t go along

Give your tribute to this campaign. Join in with your comments and messages.

 

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the Solar System.[13] It is a gas giant with mass one-thousandth that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in our Solar System combined. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian or outer planets.

The planet was known by astronomers of ancient times and was associated with the mythology and religious beliefs of many cultures. The Romans named the planet after the Roman god Jupiter.[14] When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.94, making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. (Mars can briefly match Jupiter’s brightness at certain points in its orbit.)

Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium; it may also have a rocky core of heavier elements. Because of its rapid rotation, Jupiter’s shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it possesses a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding the planet is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. There are also at least 64 moons, including the four large moons called the Galilean moons that were first discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these moons, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.

Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. The most recent probe to visit Jupiter was the Pluto-bound New Horizons spacecraft in late February 2007. The probe used the gravity from Jupiter to increase its speed. Future targets for exploration in the Jovian system include the possible ice-covered liquid ocean on the moon Europa.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Read the text carefully.Are the sentences true or false ( T / F )

1. Jupiter is the largest planet in our Solar System.    _________

2.  It is smaller than the Sun.    ___________

3. Jupiter is brighter than the Moon.  ________

4. It rotates slowly. _________

5. It has only one moon. ____________

6. Jupiter’s largest moon is bigger than Mercury.  _____________

7. Astronauts have been on this planet on several occasions. _____________

8. Pioneer and Voyager are robotic aircraft. _____________

2.  Find answers to the following questions

1. What planets are gas giants?

2. How did Jupiter get its name?

3. Why is Jupiter called a gas giant?

4. Which planet has almost as  equal brighteness as Jupiter?

5. When was the  Great Red Spot first spotted?

Finish the sentences

1.  Jupiter’s shape is ………………………………………..

2.  Its atmosphere consists of ……………………………

3.  The Great Red Spot is ……………………………..

Find the words in the text that have similar meaning

small                      huge                      fast                            easily seen          consists of

Iskoristite komentare kako biste odgovorili na pitanja.

Engleska/Engleski/Englezi/Englez

Kada učenici upotrebljavaju engleski jezik često ne prave razliku između reči  English, the English ili an Englishman. Stoga ćemo često čuti rečenice poput sledećih:

Example:  His wife is a typical English.  English are very cold and reserved. He is an English.

Ispravno je reći:

His wife is a typical Englishwoman.  ili      His wife is tipically English.

The English are very cold and reserved.

He is an Englishman. ili He is English.

Reč English je pridev. Ona se nalazi u osnovi imenica koje označavaju grupni naziv za ljude koji su poreklom iz Engleske kao i za pojedinca koji potiče iz Engleske.

Reč “ the English“ je imenica i  podrazumeva sve ljude u Engleskoj i ona je uvek u množini.   Ne možemo reći “ an English“  kada pičamo o jednoj osobi koja je poreklom iz Engleske . U tom slučaju ćemo upotrebiti  brojivu imenicu Englishman ili Englishwoman. Sledeća tabela može razjasniti dilemu sa kojom se susreću oni kojima engleski jezik nije maternji jezik:

Country Adjective Group noun Person noun
(zemlja) ( pridev) (grupna imenica) ( pojedinac)
Britain British The British Briton
England English The English Englishman, Englishwoman
France French The French Frenchman, Frenchwoman
Holland Dutch The Dutch Dutchman, Dutchwoman
Irelanad Irish The Irish Irishman, Irishwoman
Spain Spanish The Spanish Spaniard
Wales Welsh The Welsh Welshman, Welshwoman

U sledećim primerima naići ćemo na imenice koje označavaju sve ljude jedne zemlje kao i pojedinačnu osobu koje u osnovi nemaju pridev.

Country Adjective Group noun Person  noun
Scotland Scottish the Scots a Scot
Turkey Turkish the Turks a Turk
Poland Polish the Poles a Pole
Denmark Danish the Danes a Dane
Finland Finnish The Finnish a Fin

Uz imenicu koja označava sve ljude jedne zemlje možemo , a i ne moramo upotrebiti član the. Evo primera:

(The ) Americans are fond of baseball.

Međutim, član the se mora upotrebiti uz gupne imenice kojse završavaju na- sh, -ss, -ese ili -ch. Evo primera:

The French like to drink wine.

The Swiss are very fussy about hygiene.

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